LESSON-1a: a bit of theoretical background

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Welcome to the course

  • This is an experiment – we have no clue if it works out
  • By the people for the people
  • Help if you like:
    • Support others
    • Ask questions
    • Participate
  • What we have at our disposal:
    • Some physical PCs/Laptops, preinstalled with Xubuntu Linux
    • Virtual PCs that you may use
    • The laptops/tablets/PCs you brought?
    • The course website

Getting started

What is this all about?

  • Computer curses for newcomers
  • We love to pass on our knowledge
  • We want to support people to get their computer stuff done
  • Bring internet connectivity to cities/guest houses

The course

  • We start from the beginning and slowly move to more advanced topics.
  • An open project – the topics depend on the needs of the visitors.
  • What do you expect from this course?
  • Please contribute if you can (comments, translations, …)

Who are we?

  • Members of the local Linux User Group: VALUG
  • Computer enthusiasts
  • Volunteers

What is …


  • Physical elements of a computer: mouse, keyboard, cpu, hard disk, …
  • A lot of different parts in a casing.
  • Can be of almost any form factor: laptop, pc, mobile phone, tablet.


  • Software or programs: instructions for the computer.
  • Developers write those progams and special tools translate this into executable code.
  • Performs task on the hardware.
  • System software: kernel, control the hardware (Linux, Windows, Mac)
  • User software: programs to perform user tasks: Word processor, calculator, web browser, mail client

Why do we use Linux?

  • Free software. Not only gratis (as in free beer) but also free (as in a free society):
    • The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
    • The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
    • The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
    • The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • Easy to use
  • General purpose operating system: mail, web browser, provide services, gaming, …
  • Fits our needs best
  • You might already be using it

Internet and Linux

  • Linux would not be possible without the Internet
  • Internet would not be possible without Linux
  • Unix-like operating systems have about 70% market share


  • We try to refurbish old hardware for newcomers
  • Xubuntu Linux is installed on all Kalliope PCs:
    • It is an elegant and easy to use operating system for anyone.
    • It looks good and runs smoothly on old hardware.
    • It provides all programs that are required for day-to-day usage.
    • It is free software and anyone can download and install it.
  • Hardware is donated by individuals/companies.
  • We have almost no budget, there is no way for us to buy a windows license for each and every Kalliope PC.

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